Thursday, December 15, 2016

Mohammed Aldriwesh
1-What were the major patterns of Native American life in North America before Europeans arrived?
When European explorers first arrived in North America, they encountered aboriginal peoples who had worked out stable long-term adaptations to their local environments and available resources. Native North Americans lived within the balance of nature, and their cultural and religious beliefs expressed a deep reverence for the land and a sense of kinship with wildlife. Subsistence was of course central to aboriginal life and culture. The acquisition of food demanded considerable time, energy and ingenuity. It was the primary focus of Indian technology and a dominant theme in the Indian religion, legend and art. The more time there was devoted to hunting, fishing, gathering or growing food, the less time for other cultural pursuits. People here ate a large variety of foods and used a variety of means in acquiring them, depending on geography and availability as well as knowledge and technology.

2-What were the main contours of English colonization in the seventeenth century?
In the seventeenth century, North America was characterized by instability and dangerous environment. The Indian and other settler populations were decimated by diseases. Religious, political and economic tensions that drew into imperial wars and conflict with Indians racked the colonies. The colonies largely depended on their mother countries for protection and economic support. Furthermore, the Puritans were totally intolerant with the Indians and saw them as heathens. These religious issues were also there among the Massachusetts. The new colonies were continually made by of these issues. People’s concern was more on trade than church since that is what helped New England survive.

3-How did the English empire in American expand in the mid-seventeenth century?
North America, like England itself, was embedded in a worldwide matrix of trade and warfare. The web woven by oceangoing vessels, once composed of only a few strands spun by Columbus and his successors, now crisscrossed the globe, carrying European goods to America and Africa, Africans to the Americas, Caribbean sugar to New England and Europe, and New England fish and wood products to the Caribbean. Formerly tiny outposts, the North American colonies expanded their territorial claims and diversified their colonies after the mid seventeenth century. Mohawk country was closer to British metropolis than ever before.

4-How did African slavery differ regionally in eighteenth century in North America?
In the eighteenth century, African slavery was largely regionalized in North America. The North rejected slavery and eventually banned it but the south favored slavery due to its cheap labor. European settlers in the North America appropriated a relatively sparsely populated but fertile and spacious land from its Native American inhabitants. From the earliest settlement, agricultural development and its accompanying social organization differed regionally. In the North was a combination of independent family farms and greater urbanization; in the south, large scale plantation and smaller farm cultivation of tobacco with hired or African American slave labor was more typical. The North became more urban and commercial and began to industrialize, while the southern plantation economy spread, switching from tobacco to cotton cultivation.

6-What were the roots and significance of the stamp act controversy?
The stamp act controversy had its roots in the events that occurred two years earlier on the far rim of the American frontier. There, on May 16, 1763, an outpost of British troops at Fort Sandusky in the Ohio Country was slaughtered by a war party of Wyandot Indians. Within a week, a larger garrison in wilderness Michigan was attacked with brutal losses by Ojibway   warriors. The massacres were the opening battles of Pontiac’s Rebellion, an Indian uprising in the Ohio Country that was led by the Ottawa war chief whose name it bore. The shock precipitated by the stamp act was the catalyst for intense period of self-examination that occupied the decade of the 1760s and culminated in the Declaration of Independence.

7-What was the impact of the revolution on slavery?
Revolution was important to ending slavery in the Americas. Slavery flourished and was practically unquestioned on the eve of the age of revolution, yet ended relatively quickly thereafter. Beginning with 1776, revolutions influenced each other and had a cumulative effect beyond their boundaries in the assault on slavery. The American Revolution was important because it created the problem of slavery and a framework for ending it.

8-What were the achievements and problems of the confederation government?
The Articles of Confederation served as a valuable trial government. Its achievements include winning the war with Great Britain. While the constitutional convention was meeting, the congress under the Articles also adopted the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 formulating government for the western territories. Despite its accomplishments, the economy worsened as states enacted tariffs and other trade restrictions on one another’s goods. Currency was not uniform from one state to another. Congress was too weak. The government had difficulty enforcing treaties, and foreigners treated American diplomats with disrespect. Politically, the new government lacked adequate power of taxation and defense, and the rigid requirement for state unanimity stymied needed constitutional amendments.

9-What issues made the politics of the 1790s so divisive?
The financial plan that was develop by secretary of the Treasury Hamilton I  the 1790 and 1791 was the beginning of division  in the America. In this plan, the vision of powerful commercial republic won over financers, manufacturers and merchants. But the plan alarmed the believers in new nation’s destiny lying in charting, a different path of development. This resulted into much political division. Moreover, the religious issues also caused division.   

            Voices of Freedom- Choose one of the short primary documents from the chapter for that week (each Voices of freedom chapter corresponds to each Give Me Liberty! chapter) and read that short document.  Then respond to both of the questions that appear at the end of that reading.  The response to each of these questions must be in the form of a paragraph of about 5-7 sentences.  Post these two responses on your blog in a clearly labeled post which gives the Voices of Freedom chapter, name of the particular primary source reading and the page numbers of that reading.

What role religion plays in the Pueblo Revolt?
In the 1670s, drought swept the region, which caused famine among the Pueblo and provoked increased attacks from neighboring nomadic tribes—attacks against which Spanish soldiers were unable to defend. At the same time, European-introduced diseases were ravaging the natives, greatly decreasing their numbers. Unsatisfied with the protective powers of the Spanish crown and disenchanted with the Roman Catholic religion it had brought along, the people turned to their old religions. This provoked a wave of repression on the part of Franciscan missionaries. Because of that, in 1675, Governor Juan Francisco TreviƱo ordered the arrest of forty-seven Pueblo medicine men and accused them of practicing witchcraft. Four medicine men were sentenced to death by hanging. Three of those sentences were carried out, while the fourth prisoner committed suicide. 1, a new World
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What does Paine see as the global significance of the American struggle for independence?
All countries’ goal was freedom because Paine hoped the colonists obtained the rights to freedom from the British. They fought between the countries in Europe because other countries tried to get America’s lands for themselves. Paine said that when America succeeded in getting independence from Europe, America can benefit trade with other countries. However, he realized that it is difficult to succeed independence because most countries did not want freedom for colonies. Europe made colonies, then oppressed the colonies because of European economy. Also, England warned people who wanted to get freedom to leave. They had to run away for freedom.  Paine tried to reconcile and connect with Europe. However, England became involved in European’s war. 5, the American Revolution
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